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Grammar : Passive voice

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:Passive Voice Part 1

Passive Voice Part 2:

 

المبني للمجهول  : Passive Voice

 تنقسم أنواع الجملة الإنجليزية إلى نوعين اثنين :

  وهي جملة المبني للمعلوم ويكون الفاعــل في أول الجملة Active Voice

وهي جملة المبني للمجهول ويكون المفعول به أول الجملة Passive Voice

I) Use of passive voice :

The passive voice is used when the focus is on the action. It’s not important, who or what is performing the action.

نقوم باستخدام المبني للمجهول عندما يكون الفاعل بالجملة غير مهم

      “The door was opened.” مثلاً فتح الباب

 لا يهمنا من الذي فتح الباب بقدر ما يهمنا عملية فتح الباب


Examples :  

  • Dinner was prepared. (Passive Voice) 

In the example of passive voice above, the focus is on the fact that dinner was prepared. We do not know, who prepared it.

  • A house was destroyed. (we don’t know who destroyed the house)

When rewriting active sentences in passive voice, note the following :

  • The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.
  • The finite form of the verb is changed ( to be + past participle ).
  • The subject of the active sentence becomes the object of the passive sentence (or is dropped).

Form of passive : 

[ Subject + finite form of to be + past participle ]

Examples of passive : 

Tense Voice Subject Verb Object
Simple present Active The father prepares breakfast
Simple present Passive Breakfast is prepared  by the father
Simple past Active The father prepared breakfast
Simple past Passive Breakfast was prepared by the father
Present perfect Active The father has prepared breakfast
Present perfect Passive Breakfast has been prepared by the father
Future simple Active The father will prepare breakfast
Future simple Passive Breakfast will be prepared by the father
Present progressive Active The father is preparing breakfast
Present progressive Passive breakfast is being prepared by the father
Past progressive Active The father was preparing breakfast
Past progressive Passive Breakfast was being prepared by the father
Past perfect Active The father had prepared breakfast
Past perfect Passive Breakfast had been prepared by the father
Future 2 Active The father will have prepared breakfast
Future 2 Passive Breakfast will have been prepared by the father
Conditional 2 Active The father would prepare breakfast
Conditional 2 Passive Breakfast would be prepared by the father
Conditional 3 Active The father would have prepared breakfast
Conditional 3 Passive Breakfast would have been prepared by the father

II) Passive sentences with two objects :

Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2
Active My friend wrote a letter to me
Passive A letter was written to me  by my friend
Passive I was written a letter by my friend

He says – it is said 

English, impersonal passive is only possible with verbs of perception ( e.g say, think, know).

Example : 

  • They say that women live longer than men. (Active)
  • It is said that women live longer than men. (Passive)

Although impersonal passive is possible here, personal passive is more common.

Example :  

  • They say that women live longer than men. (Active)
  • Women are said to live longer than men. (Passive)

Passive voice for present / future modals : 

” Can, May, Might, Should, Must, Ought To”

Active voice Passive voice
Can

My brother can repair the boat

Can be

The boat can be repaired by my brother.

Might 

Guests might play chess

Might be

Chess might be played by guests

Should

The teacher should explain all the lessons

Should be

All the lessons should be explained by the teacher

Must

Young people must learn languages

Must be 

Languages must be learned by young people

Ought to

Students ought to respect the teachers

Ought to be

The teachers ought to be respected by students.


Passive voice for present / future modals : 

“May have, Might have, Should have, Must have, Ought to have, Could have”

Active voice Passive voice
May have

Nadia may have won the prize

May have been

The prize may have been won by Nadia

Might have

Ahmed might have eaten the food

Might have been

the food might have been eaten by Ahmed.

Should have

The teacher should have explained all lessons

Should have been

All lessons should have been explained by the teacher

Must have

He must have e.mailed the letter.

Must have been

the letter must have been emailed.

Ought to have

Students ought to have revised the lesson

Ought to have been

The lesson ought to have been revised.


 

Exams Exercises:

الانجليزية 2017 الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية كل مسالك الشعب العلمية و التقنية والأصيلة ومسالك الباكالوريا المهنية

D. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

2. Many schools have installed surveillance cameras. (Present Perfect)

     Surveillance cameras …………………………

( to be >> Present Perfect )

➡ Surveillance cameras have been installed by many schools.

2016 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة الاستدراكية كل مسالك الشعب العلمية و التقنية والأصيلة

C. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. Because of bad weather, the airport authorities cancelled all flights. (Simple Past)

     All flights ………………………………

( to be >> Simple Past )

All flights were cancelled by the airport authorities because of bad weather.

2016 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة الاستدراكية شعبة الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية مسلك العلوم الإنسانية

C. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

2. In our association, we give priority to disabled people. ( Present Simple )

     In our association, disabled people …………………………

( to be >> Present Simple am/is/are)

➡ In our association, disabled people are given priority.

2016 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية كل مسالك الشعب العلمية و التقنية والأصيلة

E. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. Ahmed Sefrioui wrote “La Boite à Merveilles” in 1954. ( Simple Past)

     La Boite à Merveilles ………………………………

( to be >> Simple Past = was/were)

La Boite à Merveilles was written by Ahmed Sefrioui in 1954.

2016 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية شعبة الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية مسلك العلوم الإنسانية

D. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. Schools should give music lessons to children. ( Modal )

     Music lessons …………………………

( Should + base form of the infinitive: verb without To. Ex: be instead of To be )  

➡ Music lessons should be given to children by schools.

2015 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة الاستدراكية كل مسالك الشعب العلمية و التقنية والأصيلة

E. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. The teacher gave the students an hour to the test. ( Simple Past)

     The students………………………………

( to be >> Simple Past = was / were )

The students were given an hour to the test by the teacher.

2016 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية شعبة الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية مسلك الآداب

C. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

3. In this hotel, they serve breakfast at 7 a.m. ( Simple Present )

     In this hotel, breakfast …………………………

( to be >> Simple Present = am / is / are )

➡ In this hotel, breakfast is served at 7 a.m.

2015 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية كل مسالك الشعب العلمية و التقنية والأصيلة

REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. They will build a big theatre in Rabat. ( Future Simple )

     A big theatre ………………………………

( to be >> Future Simple = Will be )

A big theatre will be built in Rabat.

2015 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة العادية شعبة الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية مسلك العلوم الإنسانية

D. REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

2. The government offered financial assistance to small businesses. ( Simple Past )

     Financial assistance  …………………………

( To be >> Simple Past = was / were )

➡ Financial assistance was offered to small businesses by the government.

2015 الانجليزية الامتحان الوطني الموحد للباك الدورة الاستدراكية شعبة الآداب والعلوم الإنسانية مسلك الآداب

REWRITE THE SENTENCES BEGINNING WITH THE WORDS GIVEN. (3 pts)

1. The government has taken new measures for the benefit of illegal immigrants.

     New measures ………………………………

( to be >> Present Perfect = Have/Has + been )

New measures have been taken for the benefit of illegal immigrants by the government.

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