In this lesson, we’re going to discuss how to express cause and effect and connective words that we need for this,

         Also to know the ways in which you can link causes and effects.


      A cause is the event that happens first, is something that makes something else happen (the reason)

    An effect is what happens as a result of the cause (the result)

There is what is called cause and effect relationship → When there is a cause, there is also an effect, and when there is an effect, there is also a cause

  • To determine the cause , you must ask the question

                          “Why did it happen?”

  • To determine the effect, you must ask the question

                            “What happened?”

Expressing Cause

  • because
  • as
  • since


  • Nora stayed home because she was feeling sick.
  • Nora stayed home as she was feeling sick.
  • Nora stayed home since she was sick.

We can choose one of these words to express the same thing and nothing change in the meaning of the sentence

Expressing Effect

  • As a result
  • Therefore
  • so


  • Nora was feeling as a result, she stayed home
  • Nora was feeling sick. therefore, she stayed home
  • Nora was feeling sick, so she stayed home


Note that: The cause might be written in the second part of the sentence, even though always happens first

Other signals to express cause and effect


  • Due to
  • This why
  • For this reason


  • Consequently
  • As a consequence
  • Thus
  • Because of this


  • Due to the bad weather, they did not go for picnic
  • I studied very well last night, as a consequence I got a perfect score in our test
  • There was a lot of traffic. thus, we were late


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