• I can swim.
  • I could swim when I was five.



  • You can go to the cinema.
  • In the evenings we could watch TV.

  • You could give Mary some flowers.
  • Shall we buy her a hat?

  • Measles can be quite dangerous.
  • This vase could be very valuable.
  • He may be waiting for us at the airport.
  • John might come to your party.
  • Would John come with us if we asked him?

  • It couldn’t have been John because he’s in London.
  • He drives a Ferrari. He must be rich
  • The plane should be landing any time now.
  • He has studied very hard. He ought to pass.
  • She will have plenty of time to get there.



  • You mustn’t eat any more chocolate.
  • You should never repeat what you have just said.

  • You should go to the doctor’s tomorrow. .
  • You must go to the doctor’s tomorrow! (emphatic advice)
  • Semi- modals and other forms are often used. However, they sometimes change the level of intensity of the advice given.
  • You ought to/had better/have to/ . . . . . .
  • If I were you I would go to the doctor’s.



  • We must buy some more vegetables.
  • Semi-modals (have to/need to) are often preferred. NOT NECESSARY uses don’t have to or don’t need to/ needn’t
  • We don’t need to buy any more vegetables. (It isn’t necessary)
Can I go to the cinema tonight?
Could you lend me £5, please?
May I leave the room?
Would you please close the door?


He may have gone to Spain with Mary.
Someone might have already told his father.
What would I have done without you?
Where shall/will we be this time next year?
You must / have to study harder!
I should be studying but I’m too tired.

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