Critère d’évolution spontanée d’un système chimique

Rappel sur le quotient de réaction $$\boldsymbol{Q}_{r}$$

Le quotient de réaction $$\boldsymbol{Q}_{r}$$ dans un état donné à l’instant t pour une réaction chimique d’équation : $$a A_{a q}+b B_{a q} \rightleftharpoons c C_{a q}+d D_{a q}$$
$$Q_{r}=\frac{[C]^{c}[D]^{d}}{[A]^{a}[B]^{b}}$$
$$\boldsymbol{Q}_{\boldsymbol{r}, \mathrm{e} \boldsymbol{q}}=\frac{[C]_{\mathrm{e} q}^{c}[D]_{\mathrm{e}}^{d} q}{[A]_{\mathrm{e} q}^{a}[B]_{\mathrm{e}^{\prime} q}^{b}}$$

Critère d’évolution spontanée d’un système chimique

$$a A_{a q}+b B_{a q} \rightleftharpoons c C_{a q}+d D_{a q}$$
Cette équation a deux sens :
Un sens direct
$$a A_{a q}+b B_{a q} \rightleftharpoons c C_{a q}+d D_{a q}$$
Un sens inverse
$$c C_{a q}+d D_{a q} \rightarrow a A_{a q}+b B_{a q}$$
Pour pouvoir identifier le sens d’évolution, on utilise la règle suivante :
$$\text { Si } Q_{r i}<k$$ Le système chimique évolue spontanément dans le sens direct $$\text { Si } Q_{r i}=k$$ Le système chimique n’évolue plus car il est à l’équilibre $$\text { Si } Q_{r i}>k$$
Le système chimique évolue spontanément dans le sens inverse ou indirect

Application du critère d’évolution spontanée

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